This is a ladder diagram, displaying a juggle pattern of 3 balls.
Time goes from left to right. When a ball is at the upper line, it is
held by the right hand. When it is at the lower line, it is held by the
When a ball is thrown, it moves between the lines. (a long move corresponds to a high throw)
Note that the catches and throws are at regular intervals.
maximal hold times
Now, the pattern has been adapted, in order to hold balls as long as possible.
Note that as a result, between some throws, a hand is empty for a longer time than between other throws.
physical causal diagram
In a causal diagram, the time when a ball is hold is not shown.
However, the grey lines show when a hand is empty. These are called “dwell times”.
traditional causal diagram
In a traditional causal diagram, the “dwell time” is reduced by drawing backward throws.
This yields a concise, and often clearer, representation of a juggling pattern.
Several web-site propose pattern generators (usually called: site-swap generators).
My own contribution is a site-swap generator for poly-rhythms.